Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Citation Help: Chicago

Chicago 

Author: 

Note:

1: Firstname Lastname,

2-3: Firstname Lastname, Firstname Lastname, and Firstname Lastname,

4+: Firstname Lastname et al.,

 

Shortened Note:

1: Lastname

2-3: Lastname, Lastname, and Lastname

4+: Lastname et al.

 

Bibliography: 

1: Lastname, Firstname.

2-3: Lastname, Firstname, Firstname Lastname, and Firstname Lastname.

4+: Lastname, Firstname, Firstname Last, Firstname Lastname, Firstname Lastname, Firstname Lastname, and Firstname Lastname.

 

Organization as author:

Note:

Organization Name,

 

Bibliography:

Organization Name.

If the author is unknown, begin with the title.

Title:

Titles should be in title case/headline style. All major words should have the first letter capitalized. Prepositions, articles, and conjunctions should begin in lower case.

Books, Newspapers, Journals, Blogs, Movies, Video Games, other whole works are in italics.

Title of Journal

Title of Book

Title of Blog

Chapter titles, episode titles, article titles will be in quotation marks.

“Title of Chapter”

“Title of Article”

For short notes use a shortened version of the title if it has more than 4 words. Use the part of the title that contains keywords in the title. Do not rearrange the words. Lesser words can be omitted

Example: 

The Book of Quinte Essence or The Fifth Being; That is to say, Man’s Heaven.

Could be... 

Book of Quinte Essence or Quinte Essence

“How to Make Fire without Coals, Lime, Light, etc.” 

Could be

“How to Make Fire”

Editors/Translators:

Editors instead of authors

Note:

Firstname Lastname, ed.,

Firstname Lastname, Firstname Lastname, and Firstname Lastname, eds.,

 

Bibliography

Lastname Firstname, ed.

Lastname, Firstname, Firstname Lastname, and Firstname Lastname, eds.

 

Editors, when authors are present

Note:

ed. Firstname Lastname, Firstname Lastname, and Firstname Lastname,

 

Bibliography:

Edited by Firstname Lastname, Firstname Lastname, and Firstname Lastname.

Location, Publisher, Date:

Note:

(Location: Publisher, Year).

 

Bibliography:

Location: Publisher, Year.

Bibliography

In Chicago, Notes-Bibliography, the list of references is called the bibliography. On the first page, the word “Bibliography” is centered at the top. Two lines down from “Bibliography” the citations begin. The citations are not double spaced on each line. But there is a blank line between each citation. The bibliography is alphabetized by the author’s surname or editor. If these are not available, an item may be alphabetized by title. Each citation has a hanging indentation. Each line after the first of a citation is indented .5 inches from the left.

Journal Article (Print)

Note:

Author(s), “Title of Article,” Title of Journal vol##, no. ## (Date): page ##.

Louis The Cat, “How to Manage the Household,” Cat Management Skills 18, no. 3 (Summer 2021): 14.

 

Short Note:

Author(s), “Short Title,” pagenumber.

The Cat, “Manage the Household.”

 

Bibliography:

Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Journal vol##, no. ## (Date): page-range.

The Cat, Louis. “How to Manage the Household.” Cat Management Skills 18, no. 3 (Summer 2021): 7-21.

 

Journal Article (Electronic)

Note:

Author(s), “Title of Article,” Title of Journal vol##, no. ## (Date): page, DOI/Database.

Louis The Cat, “How to Manage the Household,” Cat Management Skills 18, no. 3 (Summer 2021): 14, htt9s:///doi.cat/10.1234/123456.

Louis The Cat, “How to Manage the Household,” Cat Management Skills 18, no. 3 (Summer 2021): 14, Floofstor.

 

Short Note:

Lastname, “Short Title,” pagenumber.

The Cat, “Manage the Household,” 14.

 

Bibliography:

Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Journal vol##, no. ## (Date): page-range. DOI.

The Cat, Louis. “How to Manage the Household.” Cat Management Skills 18, no. 3 (Summer 2021): 7-21. htt9s:///doi.cat/10.1234/123456.

The Cat, Louis. “How to Manage the Household.” Cat Management Skills 18, no. 3 (Summer 2021): 7-21. Floofstor.

 

Book (Print)

Note:

Author, Title of Book (Location: Publisher, Year), page##.

Author, “Chapter in Book,” chap. ## in Title of Book (Location: Publisher, Year), page##.

Author(s), “Chapter in Book,” in Title of Book, ed. Editor(s) (Location: Publisher, Year), page##.

Buttercup The Dog, Herding with Heart (Emory, VA: AARPups, 2021), 214.

Buttercup The Dog, “Herding Three Younger Siblings,” chap. 12 in Herding with Heart (Emory, VA: AARPups, 2021, 214.

Buttercup the Dog, “Herding Three Younger Siblings,” in Herding with Heart, ed. Louis The Cat (Emory, VA: AARPups, 2021), 214.

 

Short Note:

Lastname, Short Title, pagenumber.

Lastname, “Short Chapter Title,” pagenumber.

The Dog, Herding, 214.

The Dog, “Herding Three Siblings,” 214.

 

Bibliography:

Author(s). Title of Book. Location: Publisher, Year.

Author(s). “Chapter in Book.” Chap. ## in Title of Book. Location: Publisher, Year.

Author(s). “Chapter in Book.” In Title of Book, edited by Editor(s), Page-range. Location: Publisher, Year.

The Dog, Buttercup. Herding with Heart. Emory, VA: AARPups, 2021.

The Dog, Buttercup. “Herding Three Younger Siblings.” Chap. 12 in Herding with Heart. Emory, VA: AARPups, 2021.

The Dog, Buttercup. “Herding Three Younger Siblings.” In Herding with Heart. Emory, VA: AARPups, 2021.

 

Book (eBook)

Note:

Author(s), Title (Location: Publisher, Year), page# or chap. ##, Database.

Author(s), Title (Location: Publisher, Year), chap. ##, Format/Device. 

Author(s), Title (Location: Publisher, Year), chap. ##, URL. 

Buttercup The Dog, Herding with Heart (Emory, VA: AARPups, 2021), chap. 12, Floofstor.

Buttercup The Dog, Herding with Heart (Emory, VA: AARPups, 2021), Kindle.

Buttercup The Dog, Herding with Heart (Emory, VA: AARPups, 2021), htt9s:///sercureurlforpups.com.

 

Short note: 

Lastname, Short Title, page-number/range.

The Dog, Herding, 214.

 

Bibliography:

Author(s). Title. Location: Publisher, Year. Database.

Author(s). Title. Location: Publisher, Year. Format/Device.

Author(s). Title. Location: Publisher, Year. URL.

The Dog, Buttercup. Herding with Heart. Emory, VA: AARPups, 2021. Floofstor.

The Dog, Buttercup. Herding with Heart. Emory, VA: AARPups, 2021. Kindle.

The Dog, Buttercup. Herding with Heart. Emory, VA: AARPups, 2021. htt9s:///sercureurlforpups.com.

 

News Article (Print)

Note:

Author(s), “Title of the Article,” Title of the Newspaper, Month Date, Year, pagenumber.

Slate Russell-Dachshund, “Rural Retreat Breaking News,” Newshunds Daily, October 30, 2021, A1. 

 

Short Note:

Lastname, “Short Title,” pagenumber.

Russell-Dachshund, “Breaking News,” A1.

 

Bibliography:

Author(s). “Title of the Article.” Title of the Newspaper, Date.

Russell-Dachshund, Slate. “Rural Retreat Breaking News.” Newhunds Daily. October 30, 2021.

 

News Article (Electronic)

Note:

Author(s), “Title of the Article,” Title of the Newspaper, Date, URL.

Author(s), “Title of the Article,” Title of the Newspaper, Date, Database.

Slate Russell-Dachshund, “Rural Retreat Breaking News,” Newshunds Daily, October 20, 2021, http9s:///newshundsdaily.dog.

Slate Russell-Dachshund, “Rural Retreat Breaking News,” Newshunds Daily, October 20, 2021, Floofnews.

 

Short Note:

Lastname, “Short Title.”

Russell-Dachshund, “Breaking News.”

 

Bibliography:

Author(s). “Title of the Article.” Title of the Newspaper, Date. URL.

Author(s). “Title of the Article.” Title of the Newspaper, Date. Database.

Russell-Dachshund, Slate. “Rural Retreat Breaking News.” Newhunds Daily. October 30, 2021.http9s:///newshundsdaily.dog.

Russell-Dachshund, Slate. “Rural Retreat Breaking News.” Newhunds Daily. October 30, 2021. Floofnews.

 

Magazine Article (Print)

Note:

Author(s), “Title of the Article,” Title of the Magazine, Month Date, Year, pagenumber.

Bonny the Pooch, “How to Train Your Humans,” Dog’s Guide to Life, Fall 2021, 12.

 

Short Note:

Lastname, “Short Title,” pagenumber.

the Pooch, “Train Humans,” 12.

 

Bibliography:

Author(s). “Title of the Article.” Title of the Magazine, Date.

the Pooch, Bonny. “How to Train Your Humans.” Dog’s Guide to Life, Fall 2021.

 

Magazine Article (Electronic)

Note:

Author(s), “Title of the Article,” Magazine, Date, URL.

Author(s), “Title of the Article,” Title of the Magazine, Date, Database.

Bonny the Pooch, “How to Train Your Humans,” Dog’s Guide to Life, Fall 2021, htt9s:///dogsguidetolife.com/trainhumans/.

Bonny the Pooch, “How to Train Your Humans,” Dog’s Guide to Life, Fall 2021, Floofmags.

 

Short Note:

Lastname, “Short Title.”

the Pooch, “Train Humans.”

 

Bibliography:

Author(s). “Title of the Article.” Title of the Magazine, Date. URL.

Author(s). “Title of the Article.” Title of the Magazine, Date. Database.

the Pooch, Bonny. “How to Train Your Humans.” Dog’s Guide to Life, Fall 2021. htt9s:///dogsguidetolife.com/trainhumans/.

the Pooch, Bonny. “How to Train Your Humans.” Dog’s Guide to Life, Fall 2021. Floofmags.

 

Blog Post

Note:

Author(s), “Title of the Post,” Title of the Blog, Date, URL.

Hercules the Pup, “How to Drive Your Family Crazy,” Triplets and Pawlicy, October 30, 2021. htt9s:///tripspawlicy.woof/familycrazy/.

 

Short Note:

Lastname, “Short Title.”

the Pup, “Drive Family Crazy.”

 

Bibliography:

Author(s). “Title of the Post.” Title of the Blog, Date. URL.

the Pup, Hercules. “How to Drive Your Family Crazy.” Triplets and Pawlicy, October 30, 2021. htt9s:///tripspawlicy.woof/familycrazy/.

 

Webpage

Use date accessed, if there is not a publication/modified date available.

Note:

“Title of Webpage,” Website, Author, updated Date, URL.

“Title of Webpage,” Website, accessed Date, URL.

“Fur Family and Citations,” Class-Schmash, TS Kelly Library, updated October 30, 2021, htt9:///class-schmash.com.

“Fur Family and Citations,” Class-Schmash, accessed October 30, 2021, htt9:///class-schmash.com/furfamilycitations.

 

Short Note:

Author, “Short Title.”

“Title of Webpage.”

TS Kelly Library, “Fur Family and Citations.”

“Fur Family and Citations.”

 

Bibliography:

Author. “Title of Webpage.” Website. Updated Date. URL.

TS Kelly Library. “Fur Family and Citations.” Class-Schmash. Updated October 30, 2021. htt9:///class-schmash.com/furfamilycitations.

 

Social Media

Often, social media citations can just be included in the text. If more is needed, add a note. Usually, social media posts are not included in the bibliography.

Within the text:

“Quote of the post” (@userhandle, Date).

Note:

Name (@userhandle), “First 160 characters of the post,” Social Media, Date, URL.

Company, “First 160 characters of the post,” Social Media, Date, URL.

Kabali the Fish (@kabalifish), “Kabali the Fish is fishous,” FishTank, October 20, 2021, http5:///fishtok.fish/kabalithefish.

 

Short Note:

Name, “Shortened Post.”

Kabali the Fish, “Fishous.”

 

If required in the Bibliography:

Name. “First 160 characters of the post.” Social Media, Date. URL.

Kabali the Fish. “Kabali the Fish is fishous.” FishTank, October 20, 2021. http5:///fishtok.fish/kabalithefish.

 

Audio Recordings

Note:

Primary Composer.Writer.Performer, “Title of the Song,” Title of the Work, Additional contributors, Location: Date of recording. Publisher, Date of Publication. Format. URL.

Artistname, artist type, “Name of Song,” by name of song writer/composer, recorded Date, with OtherArtistName, on Title of Work, Publisher, Format.

 

Short Note:

Artistname, “Short Title.”

 

Bibliography:

Composer. Title of Work. Performer, Location. Director. Additional Contributors. Recorded Date. Production Company, Date, Format.

Conductorname, conductor. Title of Work. Recorded in Date. Recording Company, date, Format.

Artist. Title of Work. Recording Company, Date, Format. Originally released in Date.

 

Video Recordings

Note:

Primary Contributor, Title of Work, directed by DirectorName (Original release year; Location: Studio/Distributor, format release year), format.

Title of the Work, season #, episode #, “Title of the Episode,” directed by DirectorName, featuring Primary ContributingActors, aired Date, on Station, URL.

Jerome Goldfish, Surrounded by Glass, directed by Jerome Goldfish (2021; Emory:AvaSpider Productions, 2021), DVD.

Surrounded by Glass, Season 3, episode 12, “Paranoid,” directed by Jerome Goldfish, featuring Jerome Goldfish, aired December 20, 2020, on Fish,  htt9s:///www.goldfish.com/Surrounded-by-Glass.

 

Short Note:

Primary Contributor, “Short Title.”

Goldfish, “Paranoid.”

 

Bibliography:

Primary Contributor(s). Title of Work. Directed by Director. Orig Date; Location: Studio, production Date. Format.

DirectorName, dir. Title of Work. Season ##, Episode ##, “Episode Title.” Aired/Performed Date. Location: Publisher, Date, Format, Time.

Goldfish, Jerome. Surrounded by Glass. Directed by Jerome Goldfish. 2020; Emory: AvaSpider Productions, 2021. DVD.

Goldfish, Jerome, dir. Surrounded by Glass. Season 3, Episode 12, “Paranoid.” Aired December 20, 2020, on Fish. htt9s:///www.goldfish.com/Surrounded-by-Glass.

 

Paintings, Photographs, Sculpture

Note:

Artist, Title of Artwork, Date, Medium, Size if applicable, Location. URL.

Frida Magic-Dog, Dogwoods, April 2021, Oil on canvas, (33.5 x 33.5 cm), Mooseum of Animal Artists, Emory,  htt9:///mooseumanimalart/fridamagicdog/dogwoods/.

 

Short Note:

Artist, Title of Work.

Magic-Dog, Dogwoods.

 

Bibliography:

Artist. Title of Artwork. Date. Medium. Size. Location.

Magic-Dog, Frida. Dogwoods. April 2021. Mooseum of Animal Artists Emory.

For Additional Style Resources, See the eBook Guide