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Citation Help: APA 7th edition

In Text Citations

In-Text Citations

Include citations for all information paraphrased or quoted in a source.

 

There are two ways to credit a source in the text.

 

One is to mention the author in the statement. In this case, the author’s name is used in the text and the publication year is placed after the author’s name.

Example: Keats (1962) wrote about a child's experiences with the snow.

 

Another way to document the source is to use parenthetical citation. In this case, all information about the source will be located in the parentheses at the end of the sentence, before the punctuation.

Example: ...and Peter saves his snow for another day (Keats, 1962).

 

Every use of a reference after the first will use a brief in-text citation in the parenthetic format.

 

Citing Authors

In-text

All in-text use

1: Surname (Year)

2: Surname and Surname (Year)

3+: Surname1 et al. (Year)

 

Parenthetic

First Use:

1-2: (Surname, Year)

3+(Surname1 et al., Year)

 

 

If the work is listed with Anonymous as the author the parenthetic citation will be (Anonymous, Year)

No Author:

In-Text:

1st use: 

“Title of Article/Chapter/Web Page” (Year)

Title of Book/Periodical/Brochure/Report (Year)

 

Parenthetic

1st time: (“Title of book/chapter/article,” Year)

Additional uses: (“Title of book/chapter/article,” Year)

 

Quotes

The author, date and page number(s) should be included in the citation of a quote.

References

References

 

The list of citations in APA is under the heading “References”.

It is located at the end of the paper, starting on a new page. The word “References” is centered at the top of the paper in the same font and size as the main text. The References list is double spaced and all citations should have a hanging indentation. This means the lines following the first line of each citation will be indented a half-inch from the left. 

The Reference List will be alphabetized by the last name of the first author in each citation.

 

Authors:

1 author: Surname, First initial. Middle initial.

 

2-20 authors: Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., & Surname, FI. MI.

 

21+ authors: Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI., Surname, FI. MI.,...& Surname, FI. MI. (List first 19 authors then use an ellipsis...then list the final author.)

 

Date: Date format is year, month date.

Title: Titles are in sentence case. Only first words and proper nouns are capitalized.

DOIs and URLs should be live links.

 

Book (Print)

 

Author(s) (Publication Date/Year). Title of book. (# edition) Publisher.

Editor(s). (Ed.). (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Feinberg, W. (2016). What is a public education and why we need it. Lexington Books.

 

 

Chapter in Book

Author, Author, & Author. (Date of Publication). Chapter title. In Editor(s), Title of book (pp. page range of chapter). Publisher.

Tusaiirwe, S. (2020). Decolonizing social work through learning from experiences of older women and social policy makers in Uganda. In  S.M. Tascón & J. Ife (Eds.), Disrupting whiteness in social work (pp. 74-90). Routledge.

Book (electronic)

 

Author(s). (Date). Title of book. Publisher. DOI hyperlink/permanent link

 

Huus, H. (Ed). (1961). Education: Intellectual, moral, physical. University of Pennsylvania Press. http://ezproxy.ehc.edu:2048/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cat05220a&AN=ehc.b2565786&site=eds-live

 

Journal (Print)

 

Author(s). (Date). Article title. Title of Periodical, vol(issue), page range.

Garner, M. L., Rogers, B., Watson, V., & Head, C. (2017). Influence of a mathematics teacher’s circle on elementary teachers’ use of problem solving. School Science and Mathematics, 117( 8), 317-328.

 

Use issue number if the pages of that issue start with one. If the pages continue throughout the volume, do not use the issue number.

 

Journal (E-journal)

 

Author(s). (Date). Article title. Title of Periodical, vol(iss), page range. doi hyperlink

 

Garner, M. L., Rogers, B., Watson, V., & Head, C. (2017). Influence of a mathematics teacher’s circle on elementary teachers’ use of problem solving. School Science and Mathematics, 117(8), 317-328. https://doi.org/10.1111/ssm.12250

 

Author(s). (Date). Article title. Title of Periodical, vol(iss), page range. Stable URL

Cheng, D., & Wang, L. (2015) Examining the energizing effects of humor: The influence on persistence behavior. Journal of Business and Psychology, 30(4), 759-772. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24634428

 

Newspaper Article (Print)

Author. (Date). Title of Article. Title of Newspaper. Section Letter Number.

Porter-Nichols, S. (2020, August 19). First responders, vet work to save dog. Smyth County News & Messenger. A1.

Newspaper Article (Online)

Author. (Date). Title of Article. Title of Newspaper. URL

Reuters Staff. (2020, August 7). Paws for reflection: British Foreign Office Cat Heads for Retirement. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-politics-cat/paws-for-reflection-british-foreign-office-cat-heads-for-retirement-idUSKCN25318E 

 

Government or Agency Report (Online)

 

Agency. (Date). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Retrieved from URL

 

U.S Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lunch, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung/asthma/asth_sch.pdf

 

Author(s). (Date). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Retrieved from Agency website: URL

Kessy, S.S.A., & Urio, F.M. (2006). The contribution of microfinance institutions to poverty reduction in Tanzania (Research Report No. 06.3). Retrieved from Research on Poverty Alleviation website: http://www.repoa.or.tz/documents_storage/Publications/Reports/06.3_Kessy_Urio.pdf

 

 

Social Media

Include the text of the post up to 20 words and record audiovisuals in square brackets

Twitter and Instagram:

Author, A. A. [@username]. (Date). Up to the first 20 words of the post [describe audiovisual]. Site Name. URL

Name of Group [@username]. (Date). Up to the first 20 words of the post [describe audiovisual]. Site Name. URL

Burton, L. [@levarburton] (2020, August 4). Good Morning, Y'all [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/levarburton/status/1290665748033974272?s=09

 

Facebook and others:

Author, A. A. (Date). Up to the first 20 words of the post [describe audiovisual]. Site Name. URL

Group Name [Username if available]. (Date). Up to the first 20 words of the post [describe audiovisual]. Site Name. URL

Cincinatti Zoo [@cincinnatizoo]. (2020, August 8). Floating Fiona! [Image attached]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/cincinnatizoo

Keep all nonstandard spelling, capitalization, hashtags, links, and emojis in the post.

 

Webpage

Author. (Date). Title of Work. Site Name. URL

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2018, April 2). NASA History Overview. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. https://www.nasa.gov/content/nasa-history-overview

 

Magazine print

Author. (Date). Article Title. Magazine Title, Vol(Iss), Page Range.

Mink, C. (2020, September 10). Why she shows up. Backstage, 61(22), 12-16.

 

Magazine online

Author. (Date). Article Title. Magazine Title. Vol(Iss), Page Range. URL/DOI

Wingenroth, L. (2019, July 18). She was the first Woman of Color in space--and dance helped her get there. Dance Magazine. https://www.dancemagazine.com/mae-jemison-dance-2639198565.html?rebelltitem=1#rebelltitem1

 

Blogs

Author. (Date). Blog Post Title. Blog Site Title.URL

Chillag, I. (2015, April 27). Sandwich Monday: deep fried cheese curds. NPR. https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2015/04/27/402582054/sandwich-monday-deep-fried-cheese-curds

 

Audio/Visual

Artist [Director, Producer, Host, Artist, Uploader]. (Date).Title of Episode or Piece [Description]. In/On Title of album/podcast/series. Production Company/Label. URL.

Warwick, D. (1992). What the world needs now is love [Song]. On Hidden Gems. Rhino Records.

Artist [Director, Producer, Host, Artist, Uploader]. (Date).Title of Episode or Piece[Description]In Producer, & Producer (Executive Producer(s)) Title of TV Series. Production Company.

Monty Python. (1970). The Spanish Inquisition. (Season 2, Episode 15) [TV series episode]. In Python (Monty) Pictures Limited. Monty Python’s Flying Circus. BBC.

Wonder, S. (2018). Stevie Wonder plays his own keys of life [Video]. Films on Demand. Tony Brown Productions. http://ezproxy.ehc.edu:2048/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cat05220a&AN=ehc.b2630702&site=eds-live

A Writer's Reference

For Additional Style Resources, See the eBook Guide

References used

APA

American Psychological Association. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (7th ed.) Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.