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Citation Help: AMA

In-Text Citations

Include citations for all information paraphrased or quoted in a source.

In the main text, references are noted with Arabic numeral superscripts.Superscripts should come before colons and semicolons2; they should come after commas and periods.3  They can include commas such as "1,2" or a dash "1-3" when there is a range. Every reference should be listed in the reference section in the order which they are used in the main text; and multiple citations can be used together.1,2,3-5

When quoting from a source the superscript is placed directly after the quotation marks"...."3  

The numbers will be placed directly after where the information for that source is noted. When you are citing the same source, use the original number used for that source. For instance, if you were to use the reference cited as "1" in multiple places throughout the text, you would use "1" every time.

Authors:

When citing authors within a text, only use surnames. 

1 author: Surname discovered...

2 authors: Surname and Surname discovered...

3+ authors: Surname et al. discovered...

At the end of the text, the references will appear in order of appearance with the same number as used in the text. The word "References" should appear at the top of the page, left-aligned. All resources are listed only once, even if used multiple times in the text.

References

Authors:

1-6 authors: list all six- surname First initial middle initial [No space or punctuation between the surname or initials, just commas between authors.]

7+ authors: list the first 3 followed by et al.

Book (print)

Author(s) (last name first and middle initials). Book Title. Edition number (if it is 2nd edition or above). City, State, or Country of Publisher: Publisher; copyright year.

Iverson C, Christiansen SL, Flanagin A, et al. AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 10th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2007.

Author(s) (last name first and middle initials). Book chapter. In: Editor(s) (last name first and middle initials) ed(s). Book Title. City, State, or Country of Publisher: Publisher; copyright year: page number range.

Iverson C, Christiansen SL, Flanagin A, et al. References. In: Iverson, C, ed. AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 10th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2007: 39-79.

Book (Electronic)

Author(s) (last name first and middle initials). Book Title. ed. City, State, or Country of Publisher: Publisher; copyright year. URL(provide permanent link if possible). Date access written out month day, year.

Trimble MR. The Intentional Brain: Motion, Emotion, and the Development of Modern Neuropsychiatry. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press; 2016. http://ezproxy.ehc.edu:2048/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1083497&site=eds-live. Accessed August 1, 2019.

Author(s) (last name first and middle initials). Book chapter. In: Editor(s) (last name first and middle initials) ed(s). Book Title. ed. City, State, or Country of Publisher: Publisher; copyright year: page range. URL(provide a permanent link if possible). Accessed date written out month day, year.

Trimble MR. Neuropsychiatry, then and now. In: The Intentional Brain: Motion, Emotion, and the Development of Modern Neuropsychiatry. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press; 2016: 273-287. http://ezproxy.ehc.edu:2048/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1083497&site=eds-live. Accessed August 1, 2019. 

Journal (Print)

AMA requires journal abbreviations for journal titles. These are found in 14.10 of the AMA Manual of Style.

Author(s). Article title Journal Title Abbreviation. Year; vol(issue): page range.

Nicholson LL, Adams RD, Tofts L, Pacey V. Physical and psychosocial characteristics of current child dancers and nondancers with systemic joint hypermobility: a descriptive analysis. JOSPT. 2017; 47(10): 782-791.

Journal (Electronic)

Author(s) Article title. Journal Title Abbreviation. Year; vol(issue): page range. URL. Published date. Updated date. Accessed date.

Mahmassani HA, Avendano EE, Raman G, Johnson EJ. Avocado consumption and risk factors for heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018; 107(4): 523-536. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqx078. Published April 9, 2018. Accessed August 2, 2019.


Author(s). Article title. Journal Title Abbreviation. Year; Vol(issue): page range. Doi.

Nicholson LL. Adams RD, Tofts L, Pacey V. Physical and psychosocial characteristics of current child dancers and nondancers with systemic joint hypermobility: a descriptive analysis. JOSPT. 2017; 47(10): 782-791. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7331.

For Additional Style Resources, See the eBook Guide