The type of publication used in research has multiple implications for your work. It determines:
All information should be evaluated before you decide to use it. The level of review (credibility), authority of the author, purpose of the publication, and use of credible information (references) should always be taken into account when you are evaluating information.
Research survey findings from a scholarly journal should be presented very differently in your writing than the results from a newspaper’s opinion poll, both of which are different from a Twitter poll. (Ask your professor or a librarian for more explanation.)
Each type of publication has different formatting rules.
|Level of Review||Publication Format||Publication Type||Audience||Purpose||Author||References||Example|
No review or editorial process before publication
Generally accessible on the World Wide Web
|Social Media||General Public||General Information, Entertainment, Online Social Interaction||Anyone||Optional, may have links to sources|
|Blog Posts||General Public||General Information or Entertainment||Anyone||Optional, may have links to sources||Drudge Report|
|Webpages||General Public||General Information||Anyone||Optional, may have links to sources||CDC.gov|
|Wikipedia||General Public||General Information||Anyone||Optional, may have links to sources||Wikipedia|
Reviewed by an editor or editorial board before publishing to mee the publication's standards.
Traditionally print publications published on a regular (periodic) schedule. Now published on online platforms and often behind a paywall, which requires a subscription or library database to access.
|Magazines||General Public||Entertainment||Journalist||Optional, may have links to sources||Sports Illustrated|
|Newspapers & News Organization Websites||General Public||Current information/News||Journalist||Sometimes cite or link to sources||The New York Times or NPR News|
|Trade Publications||Professionals in a discipline or industry||Current professional information/trends/practices||Journalist or Industry Professional||Sometimes cite or link to sources||Advertising Age|
Reviewed by a panel of scholars in the field before publication. Also known as refereed.
|Scholarly Journals||Scholars and researchers in a discipline||Current Research||Subject area expert, researcher, scholar||Always have full citations for sources||Political Science Quarterly|
|Book / eBook
Traditionally print books, also called monographs, now both print and eBooks are used for research. Just know they're cited differently
|Scholarly/Academic Book||Scholars and researchers in a discipline||In-depth, detailed coverage of a specific issue or topic||Subject area expert, researcher, scholar||Always have full citations for sources||Back Talk From Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes|